Getting Ready for UnPub

The past few weeks my focus was supposed to be getting ready for UnPub. A lot of my focus has been on dealing with storms and other household issues instead. So it’s been tough to focus on creation.

But I work best under pressure from a lifetime of procrastination. So the next week should be an impressive amount of work.

Part of my issue is deciding what games to bring. I have a lot of current projects that could be a good fit for UnPub, but nothing that is ready to play. And my Game Crafter order looks like it will be arriving just a little too late for me to take those games with me.

That’s enough writing, back to game design.

If you’re at UnPub say hi.

Two Mindsets

In game design, and really any creative endeavor, you need two mindsets. And the ability to switch between these two mindsets is very useful.

You need to be confident. When designing your game, pitching your game, or demoing your game you need to be completely confident that it is the best game. You need to be confident in your game so that the potential players and publishers you talk to are confident in your game. They don’t want to waste their time with a game that the creator doesn’t even think is great. And if you don’t think it’s great, why are you wasting your time on it?

So the first mindset is confidence. The second is humbleness. You need to be humble when play testers give you feedback and when developers suggest changes. You need to know that it isn’t the best game ever. You can’t achieve perfection on your own. You need help and input from other people. You should be appreciative that people are taking the time to help you. Then you have to switch back to confident to implement the changes, and promote the absolute best game.

TotalCon 2018 Recap

Last weekend I went to TotalCon, one of my local gaming conventions. It was a fun time seeing friends, playing prototypes, and even playing published games. Here’s a recap of the weekend as best I can remember.


The Mines of Mi Otal


This game was originally designed for a Game Crafter contest. One of the people who played it back then was James, who enjoyed it and asked me about it after I had shelved it. So when I saw James I knew I had to play the new version with him. This was the first test of the new version which changed a lot from the original. It was incredibly unbalanced and I lost by a lot. It was a great test though that gave me a baseline of what was worth fixing and what was not.

I’ve now had 3 tests of it and the game is coming together. There were a few elements I left out from the original that I’m going to put back, they helped mitigate some of the randomness.

Circle the Wagons


After testing Mines James taught me Circle the Wagons. A nice two player wallet game from Button Shy. I managed to win with a long wagon train. This game is quick to learn and has a lot of variety with the different scoring methods.

Comic Auction


This started as a 15 card micro game of auctions and set collection. I added more variety and extra cards for tracking player’s debt so it’s around 108 cards now. The game is a continuous auction for groups of comics. Each comic has a unique combination of two characters. For scoring players must make sets of comics all containing the same character. So players could be fighting over the same comic for different sets. Players can only go so far into debt though. Then they have to sell off comics.

This was the first test of this since I updated it. My friend Steph really enjoyed it and the group had a lot of great suggestions. Some of which we tested out. A big thing I need to figure out for this is how to value the comic sets so that it’s worth bidding high to make larger sets, but doesn’t grow so much that one extra card wins the game.

Bunny Kingdoms

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Back to published games. This was a fun card drafting and area control game. You draft cards to take control of spaces on a grid map, build building and add special features. You score each round for the number of towers you control times the number of different resources you control. The scoring started off so small, I think I made 3 points the first round. It seemed like it wouldn’t be possible to make a larger area. But it quickly escalated with special abilities and growing my area. By the last round my kingdom was earning me 55 points. The drafting was fun, and I enjoyed trying to balance between expanding my territory to connect more areas and building up what I had to increase the multipliers. This was my favorite published game of the weekend.

Dinosaur Island

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Building a dinosaur theme park is fun. I was not so good at it though. I was tempted by the goal cards and raced to get one but neglected to build up my park. I didn’t have time to build up for points before the game ended. 2 goals were similar and could be completed by the same action so the game ended pretty fast. It was fun, but I definitely need to work on my strategy.


Circle the Wagons

Since I had learned Circle the Wagons from James I was able to teach it to Steph. I’m still not good at working on building areas. But it has a fun decision space with what you can score. And I always want to tuck cards under, but you can’t.

Comic Auction

One of the suggestions from Thursday was to add an additional character to the game. Since I was going home each night instead of staying at the hotel, I had a chance to print up additional cards. The larger deck worked well and I introduced some bonus scoring. We played around with the numbers and came up with a cleaner method of selling comics mid game. Really coming along.

Hit the Jackpot

A prototype by my friend Chip. It’s a deck builder where you play 3 cards a turn to a slot machine trying to get symbols to match for bonuses and scoring. I was surprised how the theme of slot machines worked so well with a deck builder. But they both have the randomness and hope of getting combos. I think the game needs more chances to cut cards from your deck but it was interesting over all and I look forward to playing it again.



Chip and Emerson played part of a game of Plutocracy. Chip had to leave so they couldn’t finish, but they played enough to give me some great feedback. Including the question of why I had action costs that I wrote about last week. I was hoping to get some tests in to check the game before I printed it at the Game Crafter. The changes from this test required more reworking of the components than I expected, but I think the game is better for it.

Cockroach Poker

I love the bluffing and trying to read your opponents. It plays quick and is easy to teach. A nice way to finish the night.


In Vino Morte

My game published by Button Shy currently available for preorder. We had a few minutes to kill while we waited for a player, so I pulled out In Vino Morte. It’s so easy to teach and you can get several games in quickly. One of the players was even interested in buying it so yay me for marketing.



When I first showed up Saturday my friend Mike asked if I was looking for a game. He was starting up Adrenaline. Once the 5th player we were waiting for arrived, we started. I’d heard a lot about this game. An area control game themed as a shooter video game. Everything about it played to the theme, variety of cool weapons, picking up ammo, running around to shoot your opponents and not get shot in return. The only problem was the long downtime of 5 players. You really lose the flow of action when you have to wait for other players to take turns. But everything else works so well. I enjoyed it but would like to try it with only 3 players to see if it feels smoother.

Rajas of the Ganges


I had scheduled a play test with my friend Derek for a game he was helping test. But we had to wait for another player. To fill the time he taught Rajas of the Ganges. This was a neat worker placement game with lots of different things going on. I love the win condition of having a money and fame track going in opposite directions and when you cross your piece on the other track you win. The dice system was interesting and kept making me have to try and reroll as efficiently as possible to get stuff done. I didn’t do very well but it was enjoyable.

Post Human Saga

This was the game Derek was testing. It had a lot going on. A full on adventure game with a lot of detail, like tracking the health of my bat. In its current form it doesn’t seem to know what it wants to do. We played for 2 hours and didn’t really get much into the game. Some interesting mechanics and story elements but I think it needs to be streamlined a lot.


Derek, Angela and I went to get some dinner and played my new version of Vanilla. The updates worked well but I still have a lot of balancing to do. Angela said she wanted more engine building in the game to have a sense of progression. I completely agree. So I’ll be working on how to implement that in the future.

Clank! In! Space!

We got back from dinner and Derek and I joined a game of Clank! In! Space!. I enjoy deck builders and Clank sounded interesting. I haven’t played the original but heard Space was an improved version. I liked almost everything about this game except two things. There wasn’t much culling, so my deck got very bloated and inefficient. And the fact that I died one space from the scoring area with a huge point lead. The randomness worked against me on a few parts that made my inefficient deck even more frustrating. I’d be willing to try it again now that I understand how important movement cards are.



It was already past midnight but I was able to get two players for a test of Plutocracy. I was glad to have a chance to test the changes before I had a copy printed. The game dragged a bit, but the changes I made had no negative affects. Still need to adjust numbers to get the play time right. This was the first two player game in a while.

And that was my time at TotalCon 2018. Even though it’s local, it’s over an hour drive for me. I’m thinking about staying at the hotel next year so I can get more gaming in.

My next Con will be the Granite Games Summit in Nashua, NH next weekend. If you’re there come and play in the In Vino Morte tournament Saturday night.

Another Step Forward

Short one today because I’m at TotalCon. If you’re attending find me and say hi.

A while back I wrote about play testers asking “what if you don’t?” That happened again today with a test of Plutocracy. Specifically they asked what if you don’t have costs for actions.

Out of the 5 actions, 2 already don’t have a cost. For 2 more the cost can be moved into the action itself, so they will remain the same mechanically. The only action that would change is moving. Moving would no longer cost 1 influence.

In the game paying one influence is a very small thing. It is unlikely to shift anyone’s score. Players start with 5 crystals that work as a wild influence for paying costs, and they earn more from exploring new planets. So it is very rare that a player would be unable to take a move action because they didn’t have the correct influence.

On top of this cost being essentially negligible, we also kept forgetting to pay it. So a rule that is easy to forget and has a minimal affect on the game. I can see the benefits of cutting it. Streamline the rules more. Free up space on the player board. And if moving doesn’t cost anything, it really removes the need for crystals at all. So dropping crystals saves on components and again simplifies the rules.

This seems like another step towards the game being the best it can be.

Short-Term Goals

Short-term goals are important in life and in games. In my experience, people are extraordinarily bad at long term planning and “seeing the big picture”. Perhaps it’s an evolutionary hold over from the immediate need for survival. For whatever reason people can get lost if the goal is too far away or too immense to fathom. In games this can lead players to become disengaged, take excessively long turns, or just be confused.

If your game is short, then winning can be the short-term goal. But if your game goes on for more than 30 minutes, I think you would do well to have some intermediate goals for your players. These give them something to work towards without overtaxing their ability to plan.

Short-term goals offer a few benefits in your game. They can allow a player to build their strategy over time. If players need to think over their entire game plan at the start they will need to take some time to do that. However if they only need to plan to their first short-term goal it is much more approachable.

They allow new players to get into the game more easily. Especially if the initial goals are straight forward. They don’t need to understand every rule yet, just the few rules that let them get to their first goal. Then they can learn more to get to their second goal.

They allow players to roughly gauge how much progress they are making in the game. While a lot of games keep who is winning intentionally nebulous, knowing how many goals you’ve completed compared to your opponents can give you a rough idea of how you are doing in the game. Though goals do not have to be equal, 3 goals for one player may be more than 5 goals to another.

A variety of short-term goals can allow a player to map out their strategy. This is how many tech trees work in games. If I want to be able to use lasers, I have to first learn optics and electricity, but I can ignore cooking and gambling. Again, this can simplify an otherwise overwhelming game by allowing players to ignore sections of the game and focus on their strategy.

Having multiple paths of short-term goals to win a game helps the game to be more replayable. After wining one way players can try and win in a variety of other ways.

Give your players many things they can work towards and achieve in a game. Even if they don’t win, they will have a sense of accomplishment from completing short term goals.

Auction Mechanics

I’m currently working on 4 games with auction mechanics. This wasn’t intentional. After getting Plutocracy complete enough for the Cardboard Edison Award I started working on getting things ready for UnPub. My focus lately has been finishing games I’ve already started designing instead of following shiny new ideas. The 4 games I’m working on were all started at different times and coincidentally all have auction mechanics. So auctions have been on my mind a lot.

Auctions can be a tricky thing to design with because they give a lot of power to the players. If you have a very open auction where players are bidding on things that they do not know the value of, the results can be very lopsided. Even worse is when one player does know the value of things, they can easily get things cheaper than they should.

If the things being auctioned are very integral to gameplay and a player’s ability to win, it’s important that they understand the relative value of things before the auction. This could be as simple as listing the rarity of each item, so players know to bid higher to get the rare piece they need. Or having enough auctions in the game, so that messing up on a few will not ruin your chances.

Another consideration for auctions is how much you allow players to ruin their own chances of winning the game. If players can bid any amount of money on an auction, they can easily over pay and be out of the running. This can be held in check by giving players specific amounts they can bid.

The type of auction also has an impact on how much players can sway the game.

A once around auction gives players more information to use the later they are in the bid order. So earlier players will have to bid higher to try and win an auction if they think a later player also wants it. While the last player knows exactly how much they need to bid to win. It’s important that bid order changes in a game with once around auctions.

A blind auction can have a similar feel to a once around auction, but everyone is going first. So no player has the advantage of information before their bid. For this reason you can get a lot of higher bids if players think they are competing on an auction. You also need a way to deal with ties in a blind auction.

A continuous auction allows players to always outbid someone else. So prices can get much higher if two or more players are fighting over something. These auctions can take a lot longer, especially if players are allowed to make small incremental increases. This removes a lot of the player order advantage found in a once around auction. It can also incentivize players to bid on items they don’t want just to force another player to pay more. This can introduce a push your luck aspect because they must be careful not to get stuck paying for the item they don’t want.

Whatever type of auction you use, try to establish some boundaries to control the players. These could be visible boundaries like predetermined price limits or invisible boundaries like a very tightly controlled economy that doesn’t allow any player to be too far ahead in cash for an auction.

Plutocracy Continues

I’ve been working on Plutocracy a lot lately to get it submitted to the Cardboard Edison Award. With the changes added last week it really seems like the major design portion is complete and now it needs development. I’m happy with the game arc, the player incentives, the timing, even the theme has become more specific.

I just found my first design document for it, which I started on December 13, 2016. The very first line of my design notes is “Currency manipulation 4x ish political intrigue.” That was the core of what I wanted the game to be.

It began life as an action card drafting game with a modular board. Players manipulated 4 tracks; economy, military, technology, and culture, for 3 kingdoms. It was supposed to have a lot of area control to push combat, but the economy manipulation was so rewarding no one did anything else. From that first design through player decks, rondels, static and modular boards, and buildings I’ve come to the current version which is still very much the “Currency manipulation 4x ish political intrigue” idea I had back then. Though the currency is influence and the political intrigue is very high level inter-faction conflict, it is more solidly a 4X game.

Games can change drastically during design. When you start a design, make one simple, solid guidepost. Use that as an idea to build everything else off of. In a creative endeavor that can easily circle back around on itself it’s helpful to be able to see where you started from.

That guidepost can change, but if the guidepost changes I would say you are designing a different game, which is fine. Sometimes one game design is the inspiration you need for another game. But always check what your game has become against that original idea.

Here is some Plutocracy stuff, since I worked so hard on it.

Plutocracy Rules

When Things Work

It’s nice when a design finally clicks. The pieces come together and it can start to handle the pressure of players pushing the game.

Last night I had two play tests of Plutocracy. In the second game one player kept completing missions. Completing a mission gives you a point and expands your abilities for the future. My thought was that players would complete a roughly equal number of missions each game.

While this player was grabbing up all the missions I was worried that it would break the game and I would have to find a way to fix it, again. But in the end he lost by 2 points. While this is only one instance and the game will need to continue being stress tested, it was nice that it managed to pull through without a runaway winner.

The reason it held together was that missions have diminishing returns. They are always worth 1 point but the extra actions you gain from them become less useful as you get more. And there are other parts of the game that will earn you more points than the missions as the game progresses.

You probably have an idea of how you want players to play your game, and if you have good incentives, players should generally follow your plan. But be aware of other things players could do and if those things would be a dominant strategy.

The Mines of Mi Otal

Topic suggested by CM Perry (@BHFuturist).

The Mines of Mi Otal is a worker placement game that I started designing for The Game Crafter Worker Placement Challenge which was due the end of May 2016. So I probably started it a month or two earlier.

Thinking back on it, this design and contest were responsible for me meeting a few designers. I started talking to the judge for the contest once my game made it to the finals. Since then he has been on my podcast a few times. And months after the contest I met the contest winner at a local convention. It turned out we lived pretty close to each other and he was looking to start up a play test group. So I’ve met a great group of people through that who I may not have met if I didn’t design this game.

As for the game. This was my first attempt at designing a worker placement game and at the time I hadn’t actually played many. So I wasn’t so familiar with the variety of ways it has been done.

The initial idea was inspired by the game Ryu. I’ve never played Ryu,but I heard a review of it on a podcast. If I remember correctly a mechanic in Ryu was drawing cubes from a bag and hoping to get the right color for what you wanted to do. That’s what I took away from the description anyway. I thought that this mechanic would fit well with a building theme where you would try to gather a resource, say stone, and would get to pull some number of cubes from the bag and keep all the stones. The rest would be treated as nothing for that pull and go back in the bag. This first version was focused on using the resources to build new buildings and locations that let you pull more cubes or trade cubes and generally mitigate the randomness of the bag pulls. Another important aspect was the rarity of different resources in the bag. You could easily pull wood and stone, but gold was much harder to get.

The first version made it to prototype, but it wasn’t ever played. This was before I had joined any play test groups. So it sat around unfinished. Then the worker placement contest came along. I hit on the idea of mining as a theme and crafting items with the different resources.

So the version of the game I submitted to the contest had a bag of chits that were iron, silver, gold, and diamond. Each had a different rarity. Players would place a worker on a specific mine space, for instance the silver mine, and pull 6 chits from the bag. They would keep all of the silver and put the rest back. So players could go to the iron mine and have a good chance of getting some iron or try for the diamond mine and often get nothing. In addition to these mines were some mine spaces that had a random assortment of resources that you could see. Placing a worker there let you take any two resources, but once they were empty they stayed empty.

After collecting enough resources a player could put a worker on the forge and trade resources in to forge an item. Each item required a unique combination of 3 resources and could be sold for double the value of the original resources. Resources could also be sold at the market to get some quick money if you needed it.

Money was important for the other main mechanic in the game. Every round you had to hire your workers. Each player had one worker they kept to prevent them from being totally locked out but, any additional workers had to be hired from a worker pool at the start of the round. The pool only had 8 workers available, so if the players before you hired all 8 you were out of luck. So going first could be important. However, the more workers you hired the more money it cost per worker. So you could hire a single worker for 2 coins. Or, you could hire all 8 workers for 44 coins. This would give you a huge advantage of actions in the round but at that cost you were almost certainly throwing away the game. The more tense situations came from the middle ground where the last player could be blocked out of getting any workers if earlier players spent enough. But money could be very tight, especially in the early game.

The game played pretty well and got some interest from various people I tested with. But I abandoned the design not too long after the contest to start working on other contest submissions. But I eventually started thinking about the game again and ways to improve it. I reworked the hiring mechanic into an auction for my game Vanilla. So the basic concept of having to pay more to hire more workers was there but as an auction players could more freely choose how much they were willing to pay but the highest bidder could still take all of the workers for a round.

I plan on focusing on The Mines of Mi Otal once I finish up Plutocracy. The original design was very limited by the contest’s price constraint. So without that I’m thinking it can be a larger game with each player being able to upgrade their forge and workshop. One of the complaints with the last version was how random the available items to craft could be. Sometimes players just got lucky having the right resources. I’m thinking private contracts, similar to tickets in Ticket to Ride, would be better than a public row of items that players raced for. The changes to hiring workers I used in Vanilla have been further refined and I think it will work really well in this new version.

These new ideas have me really excited to get back to work on this design after such a long break. Only the fast approaching deadline for Plutocracy getting into the Cardboard Edison Award is holding me back. So once that’s done you’ll probably see a lot of posts from me about The Mines of Mi Otal.

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For more game design discussion listen to The Board Game Workshop.

Why I Back

I wasn’t sure what to write about this week so I asked the wisdom of Twitter and got a lot of good ideas. I’ll start with the first one from Odin Phong (@PhongOdin). What makes me back a Kickstarter?

I’ve listened to a lot of podcasts about good Kickstarter creator practices and how to get people to back your Kickstarter. But I never really thought about why I personally back a Kickstarter.

The first game I backed was Tiny Epic Galaxies back in February of 2015. I had only been active in the board game hobby for about 10 months at that point. I was hesitant to back a Kickstarter because of stories of projects that never delivered or had long delays. Tiny Epic Galaxies was only $26 with all the extras and shipping from a company that had delivered Kickstarters before. So it seemed like a safe bet. Also the theme was interesting and it seemed like a fun game.

Once I backed that first project it was easier to back more. Next I backed Vault Wars because I used to watch Storage Wars and it seemed like a fun theme. I paid the extra for the metal coins because I didn’t want to miss out on anything. Fear of missing out will be a reoccurring theme here.

I backed some games because I liked previous games by the designers and they weren’t that expensive. Everything I backed was from $10-$30 with a few times I backed $1 to friends’ projects.

So I would usually back a project if it was less than $30 and seemed fun. I started backing Button Shy wallet games when I entered their first design contest. As I become more involved with Button Shy and the other designers my reason for backing shifted from “It’s an interesting game for a few bucks” to “supporting friends who have an interesting game for a few bucks”. Now on top of that there is an element of collecting involved and I have to make sure I get every interesting game for a few bucks made by friends.

I backed Pack O Games Set 2 because I regretted missing Set 1. Which was almost my first backed project, but waiting for months for a game didn’t seem worth it.

Karmaka was at the Boston Festival of Indie Games when I went and looked interesting so I backed it. Villages of Valeria was talked about on Going Last and sounded interesting so I backed it. One Deck Dungeon was getting some complaints because it had all female characters. Being able to support that design choice made me back it. Heroes and Tricks looked fun and I recently found out I liked trick taking games and owned none, so I backed it. Dice of Crowns and Blend Off were light dice games I like custom dice. So I backed them. All of this stuck to my under $30 and looks interesting rule.

Then Xia came out with an expansion. I had played Xia over my friends house a few times. I really enjoyed it and wanted my own copy, but they weren’t easy to come by for a reasonable price. So when the expansion went on Kickstarter with the option of getting the base game too, I backed it. This was $135. Way past my previous limit, but it was a game I knew I liked and I had to get all the extras. This entered me into phase two of my Kickstarter backing. I was no longer hesitant of spending over $30 if I liked a game. I was still more concerned about more expensive projects being delivered but I didn’t want to miss out on big games with exclusive content.

I continued backing smaller interesting games but I started getting some big ones I was interested in. Near and Far got $77 from me, I love Above and Below and also had to get the extras. Empires of the Void II also got me because Red Raven Games is good at what they do.

I regretted missing Blood Rage on Kickstarter so I was all in for Rising Sun (except the art book). Some games that fell below the $30 threshold got extra money from me by bundling older games I wanted with them. Which I regret in hind site because I had to wait months for a game that was already in retail.

Dinosaur Island looked interesting but I was starting to slow down my game buying because I had no shelf space left. But when I saw the deluxe version was a Kickstarter exclusive I couldn’t resist.

I heard so many great things about Gloomhaven after the first campaign so when it had a second edition I backed it right away.

Meeple Source got me by having upgrades for all of my Red Raven Games. Star Realms got me because I’m a completionist.

Spy Club got me because I think my wife will really enjoy the theme.

Sunset Over Water got me with Beth Sobel’s beautiful art.

After 3 years of backing Kickstarters I’ve become a superbacker and gotten more games than I can play or store. I’ve cut back my backing a lot recently and usually back for $1 to support projects but not have to find a place to store a game.

But as to why I back, I’m grabbed by an interesting theme, nice art, and a low price. Or by a big name title that I know will be worth the money. And as much as I hate it, Kickstarter exclusives can push me if I’m on the fence about a game. But early bird deals that I missed will usually make me not back at all.

Kickstarter is an interesting place to be involved with games and have some input into their development. But it can be a dangerous place for anyone worried about missing out on an exclusive. But those metal coins in Dinosaur Island are really nice.